Table of Contents
Globalization is a far-reaching process where the world has become more integrated, and consequently, the interaction between people and governments has increased. It took place in three distinct phases: the early stage which involved colonization, the age of transnational integration, and the modern age of contemporary globalization. Contemporary globalization is hence defined as the last stage of globalization. It has been characterized by new advancements in technology, cultural integration, and political integration. However, it has its fair share of failures. As the countries made huge steps towards modernization of industries, industrial pollution has increased. Political boundaries and scarce resources have led to wars between nations and communities. This paper analyzes contemporary globalization and uses Tanzania as a scale to weigh the effects.
Africa lagged behind globalization. Tanzania was colonized in the period between 1850 and 1890 (Hirst, Thompson, & Bromley, 2015). Before colonization, Africans relied on small-scale farming and rearing of animals as their source of livelihood. The culture was common in the larger part of the East Africa. Resources were shared communally (Hirst et al., 2015). Having no political boundaries, herders would cross to the neighboring East African countries like Kenya and Uganda (Hirst et al., 2015). Globalization, however, led to the change in all these mechanisms. Tribal warfare became a common element as communities battled for the scarce resources in their political borders. The Tropic of Chaos (Parenti, 2011) is a book that gives a narrative of pre and post-globalization in the East African region.
The new technology has brought a range of new advancements in warfare techniques (Petrovic & Hamilton, 2006). More lethal weapons such as guns have been introduced. While this is advantageous in enhancing national defense, it has also increased inter-tribal warfare. Stealing of cattle in Tanzania has increased. More so, the communities, located closer to the border with Kenya, have been raiding cattle from each other. Ekaru met his death through a live bullet during a cattle raid (Parenti, 2011). Parenti (2011) brings into question why firearms were introduced in the East African region where previously this was uncommon. He carries an in-depth analysis of wars that have coupled globalization including the Cold War. Cattle rustlers in Tanzania have become more lethal.
Globalization led to the creation of political boundaries. This was aimed at making the different countries independent and more governable. However, in the post-colonial period, counties and communities have been involved in inter-border conflicts. The communities from Tanzania have been involved in tribal wars with the Pokot people of Kenya and other communities in Uganda (Parenti, 2011). Parenti (2011) further questions why the borders even exist and whose interest they serve.
Climate has been adversely affected in the era of globalization due to industrialization (Cronon, 2009). Some foreign industries have set up production plants in Tanzania (Cronon, 2009). This is influenced by the generally low cost of labor and availability of raw materials in the country. Examples of such industries include Geita Gold Mine Ltd from Ghana, Glaxo Welcome from the United Kingdom, and Kibo Breweries Ltd from Kenya (Edwards, 2015). Industrialization has led to pollution. Population density has also increased due to the active search of jobs for the unemployed population. Clustering of the population has led to the destruction of natural resources (Edwards, 2015). The emission of nitrogen in the air has caused acidic rains which have further made the soil infertile (Edwards, 2015). Rainfall levels have also dropped due to global warming. Tanzania relies heavily on agriculture hence this negatively affects its productivity (Edwards, 2015). As a matter of fact, Parenti (2011) paints a picture of the neighboring region of Turkana. Water sources have dried up and the communities are competing for the available water sources.
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Contemporary globalization introduced capitalism and communism (Chang, 2012). Capitalism was an idea that was advocated for by the United States while communism was advocated for by Russia (Chang, 2012). Eventually, this lead to the Cold War with the United States winning. Capitalism was hence adopted by a large number of nations. Capitalism entails a system where capital is privately owned (Petrovic & Hamilton, 2006), and wealth is unevenly distributed. The society is also stratified (Chang, 2012). The focus shifts from communal development to individual development, and this leads to individuals wanting to amass a lot of wealth. Tanzania, like many nations, adopted capitalism. Parenti (2011) states that a capitalist type of economy may not be able to sustain the economy, and it is incapable of accommodating itself to the limits of the natural world. There has to be an advocate for ecological preservation across all states (Parenti, 2011). Capitalism has led to unethical practices in Tanzania. Vices such as corruption and destruction of resources have been on the rise (Chang, 2012). This is driven by the individuals wanting to enrich themselves at the expense of the community.
Government sectors such as procurement administration and taxation have had massive corruption cases (Edwards, 2015). Petty corruption has also been reported in areas such as traffic and immigration. Deforestation is also on the rise which has adversely affected wildlife. Tanzania is currently losing millions of dollars from illegal timber crime (Edwards, 2015). In Tanzania, solid and liquid waste from industries is left untreated. This has resulted in the contamination of water, which is a major health hazard for consumers (Edwards, 2015). In villages, there has been illegal poaching. All these are new concepts brought by capitalism as people focus on enriching themselves individually. The society has been stratified, and there is an uneven distribution of resources. Poverty levels are on the rise coupled with unemployment (Edwards, 2015).
Contemporary globalization has, however, led to the improvement of some aspects in Tanzania and greater East Africa. New technologies have led to advancements in the modes of transportation (Rivoli, 2014). Tanzania is the great hub of wildlife and natural sceneries. As such, tourism has increased. Some of the amazing tourist attractions include Mount Kilimanjaro and Serengeti National Park (Edwards, 2015). This has led to a more modern source of income for the government and people of Tanzania. Tourism is currently one of the major income earners for the economy of Tanzania (Edwards, 2015). Integration of cultures has led to civilization in the greater East African region. Ekaru was killed while trying to defend the few heads of cattle he owned (Parenti, 2011). This was the chief source of livelihood for many communities in the greater East African region. Contemporary globalization has however introduced newer ways of doing things (Mlozi, Pesamaa & Haahti, 2013). This includes such spheres as tourism and zero grazing. Better breeds of cattle have been introduced to Tanzania, and farming has been more modernized (Edwards, 2015).
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Contemporary globalization has had both positive and negative impact in many countries. This has been. It is, therefore important that governments of nations such as Tanzania take deliberate efforts to make certain that their countries benefit fully from globalization. Vices that have coupled globalization such as illegal poaching, destruction of the environment, and illegal trading of firearms need to be put in the check to ensure progressive development. Positive effects such as tourism and agriculture need to be stepped up to experience economic growth of the nation.
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