Ideological components that Leo Chavez presented are based on the assumptions about Latinos. There is an assumption regarding homogeneity of this population which has, however, maintained cultural diversity within their regional borders. Also, there is an assumption that Latinos are uneducated and undocumented immigrants that are denied educational opportunities. Chavez also tried to counter different ideologies regarding prejudices that attempt to malign the entire Latin American population of the U.S. For instance, there is stereotypic information concerning fertility and reproduction of Latinos. There is a part of the U.S. population that developed the ideology that the Latino characterization by whites should be banned. It is because they are brought up with the perception that they cannot respect the Latino population. Therefore, the vulnerable minority is denied the confidence to enjoy some privileges in the land where they are regarded as foreigners and minorities.
Chavez challenged the ideological assumptions by implementation of the neoliberal approach in highlighting the common myths regarding Latinos. The media was also accused of inaccurate presentation of information that misleads the public concerning the perception of these immigrants (Chavez 35). The media has also contributed to the negative publicity by spreading the myths about the minorities such as Mexicans. Chavez condemned the acts such as the language separatism which is a significant threat to a peaceful socio-cultural integration in the American society. The allegations that the minority populations such as Latinos and Mexicans are the masterminds of terrorism were also condemned. The latter prejudgment made the U.S. Department of Homeland Security maximize their efforts on the Mexico – United States border, which limited the trade in the region.
The example of an article from the Web that illustrates Chavez’s arguments on the discrimination of Latinos is the one about portrayals of Latinos in the movies (Ryzik). The portrayals of Latinos as weak characters such as gardeners and laborers were an escalating tendency in the mainstream media. For instance, Caucasians dominate North American films. The popular Latino actors such as Penelope Cruz are usually given supporting roles and are rarely allowed to be the main characters. Lack of representation of Latinos in leading roles has always negatively impacted their representation in America. Therefore, they end up feeling unwanted despite the fact that some were born and educated in the U.S. The issue of being undocumented immigrants also affects their participation in the nation-building forums. They lack access to the publicly funded educational programs because of the inferiority of their culture. Another example of misrepresentation of the Latin American behavior can be evident from the movie Next Friday. The three Latino brothers are represented as thugs who have an uncontrollable habit of abusing marijuana. They are also depicted as criminals, which has a detrimental impact on the well-being of Latinos in the U.S. It is usually difficult to change the societal perception regarding the content they receive from the media and films just as suggested by the social learning theory.
It can be argued that the media portrayals of these characters are a misrepresentation of an actual habit. At the same time, any community is prone to abusing drugs and to limit it to a particular race or culture is unfair. Chavez argues that it can increase animosity between different groups which can lead to conflicts.
Jose van Dijck’s description of social media as a culture of connectivity implies that social media is an ultimate solution for the people to remain connected through communication. The socialization process is facilitated by the social media platforms such as YouTube, Twitter and Facebook. Contemporary communication channels and habits have been influenced by the availability of these platforms where the creative transition occurs. Modern business environments also shift their attention to social media as a tool to make their businesses lucrative. However, considerable tension arises over the issue of ethics. The information that users give to business organizations is misused and presented to third parties. They resort to social networking systems in the name of establishing significant customer relationship management systems. Therefore, the description of social media as a culture of connectivity is a reflection of the trends such as sharing online creativity and community-based social activities. Social media platforms also play a significant role in making commercial organizations stay connected with their potential consumers. Dijck acknowledges that it is a significant tool in the pursuit of the consumers’ feedback regarding the consumption of a particular line of products. A commercial organization can obtain the data regarding the performance of its business by evaluating the number of likes and comments a particular advert receives within a given period of time. This aspect is achievable because users can massively peruse public opinions from the comment box and draw conclusions (Dijck 159). Therefore, social media platforms can be regarded as the most significant tool for enhancing solidarity in the society.
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Social media platforms also normalize sociality by increasing the aspect of online interactions and the process of sharing knowledge (Dijck 166). As rapid interactions take place, people from different geographical locations communicate and even make transactions facilitated by the usage of social media. People have an option of uploading audio files and videos onto social media platforms which can be viewed and appreciated by other people in the society. Additionally, globalization promotes the usage of social media since people can interact without meeting physically. They can also conduct business transactions with an aid of online payment systems which make their business effective.
Social media platforms have also been used as a tool to empower consumers in the economic perspective regarding the types of goods and services they receive It is easier for an individual to pursue knowledge from social media platforms such as YouTube regarding the usage of a particular product. However, this platform has been condemned because of the frequency of infringing personal space and accessing private data. The data is usually enhanced by the trending Twitter posts, Google Analytics and Facebook Memology (Dijck 168). According to Dijck, the primary challenge experienced by the usage of social media is impersonation despite the availability of facial identification as a new privacy control. Social media also enhance the aspect of cultural globalization whereby African countries have learnt a significant cultural stratum from the Western world through Facebook and other platforms.
However, Hesmondhalgh points out that various challenges are encountered which have been initiated by social media. According to Hesmondhalgh, the aggressive spread of social media has led to the loss of cultural heritage of African countries. Most of them had an outstanding cultural heritage which has been overshadowed by westernization. The usage of social media platforms was also analyzed from the global market perspective. It was established that European nations embraced social media to showcase the level of economic development. This aspect is usually detrimental to developing countries which are underrated in terms of development hence vulnerable to unfair currency exchange.
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